This study looks at the status of women in the workplace — and specifically which European countries have the best gender equality in the workplace. It examines where the gender gap in employment is most severe, and in what types of jobs women are under-represented.

The analysis spans 18 countries, and is based on the following key indicators: 

  • The difference in employment rates between men and women for overall employment and for full-time employment (the “gender gap” in employment). 
  • The gender gap in employment by educational attainment.
  • The female-to-male ratio in labour force participation, in tertiary education enrollment, in professional and technical positions, and among legislators, senior officials, and managers.
  • The proportion of managers who are women, and the share of women on the boards of the largest listed companies. 
  • Finally, the “cost of motherhood” is considered — that’s to say, the increase in the gender pay gap accounted for by the presence of children. 
  • The United States is included as benchmark.

Click here to read the full report